Free Ukrainian Course. Lesson 14

Free Ukrainian course - Lesson 14

Free Ukrainian Course
Ukrainian lessons for beginners

Lesson 14: За́раз я йду додо́му.
Я завжди́ хо́джу додо́му пíшки.
Now I’m going home.
I always go home on foot.


In this lesson you will learn:

  • the verbs of motion in Ukrainian
Useful phrase in Ukrainian

Useful phrase in Ukrainian

Listen and repeat the following sentence:

За́раз я йду додо́му. Я завжди́ хо́джу додо́му пíшки.

Now I’m going home. I always go home on foot.

The verbs of motion in Ukrainian: As you have seen in previous lessons, the Ukrainian verbs give more information than the verbs in English. That’s why to express the meaning of a single verb in Ukrainian, we need many words in English.

As in other Slavonic languages, the verbs of motion in Ukrainian are special as you have to differentiate between a general, multidirectional or specific, unidirectional movement – in addition to whether it’s perfective or imperfective (aspects).

Ukrainian vocabulary

Ukrainian vocabulary

Read, listen and repeat the basic vocabulary of this lesson.

басе́йн / санато́рій

swimming pool / spa

спорт / спортсме́н

sport / athlete

спра́вжній/ -я/ -є (singular), спра́вжні (plural)

real, authentic

літа́к / літако́м

plane / by plane

пога́но / йому́ пога́но

bad, unwell / he feels unwell

Різдво́

Christmas

Рим

Rome

Єги́пет

Egypt

Майда́н Незале́жності

Independence Square (Maidan Nezalezhnosti)

рік / роки́

year / years

годи́на

hour

чудо́во!

great!

по́руч з

near

зупи́нка

stop

ранíше

before

пíшки, ходи́ти пíшки

on foot, to go on foot

кори́сно

healthy

Ukrainian vocabulary

Specific vocabulary: Verbs

In this lesson you will see both perfective and imperfective Ukrainian verbs of motion.

As you can see, the perfective verbs are usually formed by adding the prefix “по-“ to the imperfective verb.

Ukrainian imperfective verbs of motion

English

ходи́ти (regularly) / йти (in a specific direction)

to walk, to go on foot

ї́здити (regularly) / ї́хати (in a specific direction)

to go (in a vehicle)

літа́ти (regularly) / летíти (in a specific direction)

to fly

бíгати (regularly) / бíгти (in a specific direction)

to run

In the grammar section you will see the whole conjugation of each verb.

Ukrainian perfective verbs of motion

English

піти́ (“пі-” as exception)

to go (on foot)

пої́хати

to go (in a vehicle)

полетíти

to fly

Ukrainian dialogues

Dialogues

With extra help for verbs!

Now you are going to see three dialogues with Ukrainian verbs of motion.

Imperfective verbs of motion

  • verbs that express a repeated multidirectional motion (to go to a place regularly) will be highlighted in blue.
  • verbs that express one-time motion in a single direction will be highlighted in black.
    (unidirectional movemment)

Perfective verbs of motion

  • verbs that express a multidirectional, one-time motion will be highlighted in red.
Ukrainian grammar

Ukrainian grammar

Read the following grammar explanations for this lesson:

Ukrainian verbs of motion

We are going to have a look at the Ukrainian verbs that mean “to go”, “to run”, “to fly”,… that is, Ukrainian verbs of motion.

For each English verb of motion, we have two verbs in Ukrainian. Look here at these two meanings of the verb “to go” =>

I usually go to the cinema with Pedro Here we express a routine, a movement that we usually/frequently do. We make a “multidirectional motion” (return trip), which is going from home to the cinema and back home.
I’m going to the cinema with Pedro Here we express that we are “on our way” to the cinema. We make a “unidirectional motion” (one-way trip), which is going from home to the cinema.

As you can see in both cases we use the same English verb (to go), but in Ukrainian we use two different verbs:

I usually go to the cinema Я ходжу́ у кіно́ (verb ходи́ти) ходи́ти: means “to go regularly, to go there and return”. It’s a multidireccional verb of motion.
I’m going to the cinema Я йду у кіно́ (verb йти) йти: means “to be going there, to go on a single direction”. It’s a unidireccional verb of movement.

As you can see, we have two kind of verbs of motion:

  • Multidirectional verbs of motion, which mean “to go often/regularly/frequently AND to go and return”.
  • Unidirectional verbs of motion, which mean “to be going somewhere”.

We take another example: “Mark flies to Madrid”. If we want to say…

Mark usually/regularly flies to Madrid we would use the multidirectional verb “літа́ти” Марк літа́є в Мадри́д
Mark is flying to Madrid
(right now)
we would use the unidireccional verb “летíти” Марк лети́ть в Мадри́д

Have a look at these two sentences and how we translate them into Ukrainian:

We used to go to the cinema Many times we did the trip home–>cinema–>home. That’s a multidirectional motion.

In this case we use the multidirectional verb of motion ходи́ти and we say in Ukrainian “Ми ходи́ли в кіно́”.

We were going to the cinema.
(implies: when something else happened)
We were doing the trip home–>cinema, we were on our way to the cinema. That’s a unidirectional motion.

We use the unidirectional verb of motion “йти” and we say in Ukrainian “Ми йшли в кіно́”.

Remember that the verb “йти” has irregular past forms: “йшов” (masculine), “йшла” (feminine), “йшли” (plural).

Important: One-time multidirectional movement

If we want to say a very common phrase like “We went to the cinema (only once)”, we will use the same verb as in “we used to go to the cinema (regularly) because we went to the cinema and back home. We only have to add context to the phrase:

Ми ходи́ли в кіно́ вчо́ра We went to the cinema yesterday / We were in the cinema yesterday.
Ми ходи́ли в кіно́, коли́ ми жи́ли в Ки́єві We used to go to the cinema when we were living in Kiev.

This “Ми ходи́ли в кіно́” means always that we did the trip home–>cinema–>home.

The rest of the sentences (вчо́ра / коли́ ми жи́ли в Ки́єві) will let us know if the trip was done once or many times.

On the other hand, a sentence like “Ми йшли в кіно́” means always that we were doing the trip home–>cinema.

As you can see, it is easy to understand why they call them multidirectional and unidirectional verbs of motion.

As you have seen, for each English verb of motion (to go, to run, to fly,…) there are two Ukrainian verbs:

Multidirectional verb of motion: This verb means “to make a movement regularly” OR simply to go to a place and back.

  • If the verb is in the present, we talk about a movement that we usually do.
  • If the verb is in the past, we talk about a movement that we used to do.
  • If the verb is in the past, it also means that we have been to a place once, we went there and came back.

Unidirectional verb of motion: This verb means “to be moving in a single direction”

  • If the verb is in the present, we talk about the movement that we are doing right now.
  • If the verb is in the past, we talk about that movement that we were doing in that moment (eg. when somethnig else happend)

Ukrainian verbs of motion conjugated

The following verbs express motion in different directions (usually “go there and back” / “return trip” / “round-trip”).

  • In the present: they express that you usually go (and come back) regularly to a place.
  • In the past: they express that you used to go (and come back) regularly to a place.
Ї́здити (to travel / to go using a vehicle)
Present
Я ходжу́ I usually go
Ти хо́диш You usually go
Він хо́дить He usually goes
Ми хо́димо We usually go
Ви хо́дите You usually go
Вони́ хо́дять They usually go
Present
Я ї́жджу I usually go
Ти ї́здиш You usually go
Він ї́здить He usually goes
Ми ї́здимо We usually go
Ви ї́здите You usually go
Вони ї́здять They usually go
Past
ходи́в (masc.) I/you/he used to go
ходи́ла (fem.) I/you/she used to go
ходи́ло (neuter) I/you/she used to go
ходи́ли (plural) You/we/they used to go
Past
ї́здив (masc.) I/you/he used to go
ї́здила (fem.) I/you/she used to go
ї́здилo (neuter) I/you/she used to go
ї́здили (plural) You/we/they used to go
Present
Я літа́ю I usually fly
Ти літа́єш You usually fly
Він літа́є He usually flies
Ми літа́ємо We usually fly
Ви літа́єте You usually fly
Вони́ літа́ють They usually fly
Present
Я бíгаю I usually run
Ти бíгаєш You usually run
Він бíгає He usually runs
Ми бíгаємо We usually run
Ви бігаєте You usually run
Вони́ бігають They usually run
Past
літа́в (masc.) I/you/he used to fly
літа́ла (fem.) I/you/she used to fly
літа́ло (neuter) I/you/she used to fly
літа́ли (plural) You/we/they used to fly
Past
бíгав (masc.) I/you/he used to run
бíгала (fem.) I/you/she used to run
бігалo (neuter) I/you/she used to run
бíгали (plural) You/we/they used to run

The following verbs express motion in a single direction (that is, the direction you are moving towards).

  • In the present: they express that you are moving (going to a place) now.
  • In the past: they express that you were moving (going to a place) in the past.
Ї́хати (to travel / to go using a vehicle)
Present
Я йду I am going
Ти йдеш You are going
Він йде He is going
Ми йдемо́ We are going
Ви йдете́ You are going
Вони́ йдуть They are going
Present
Я ї́ду I am going
Ти ї́деш You are going
Він ї́де He is going
Ми ї́демо We are going
Ви ї́дете You are going
Вони́ ї́дуть They are going
Past
йшов (masc.) I/you/he was going
йшла (fem.) I/you/she was going
йшлo (neuter) I/you/she was going
йшли (plural) You/we/they were going
Past
ї́хав (masc.) I/you/he was going
ї́хала (fem.) I/you/she was going
ї́халo (meuter) I/you/she was going
ї́хали (plural) You/we/they were going
Present
Я лечу́ I am flying
Ти лети́ш You are flying
Він лети́ть He is flying
Ми летимо́ We are flying
Ви летите́ You are flying
Вони́ летя́ть They are flying
Present
Я біжу́ I am running
Ти біжи́ш are running
Він біжи́ть He is running
Ми біжимо́ We are running
Ви біжите́ You are running
Вони́ біжа́ть They are running
Past
летíв (masc.) I/you/he was flying
летíла (fem.) I/you/she was flying
летíло (neuter) I/you/she was flying
летíли (plural) You/we/they were flying
Past
біг (masc.) I/you/he was running
бíгла (fem.) I/you/she was running
бíглo (neuter) I/you/she was running
бíгли (plural) You/we/they were running

Every verb of motion that you have seen in the tables above are imperfective (no matter if they are multidirectional or unidirectional). If we take a unidirectional verb and we add the prefix по-, we get a perfective verb. But, the same will not happen with a multidirectional verb: if we add по-, the verb is still imperfective.

In the dialogues section we have seen some examples of these perfective verbs highlighted.

The perfective verbs of motion that you have seen in the lesson are:

  • піти́ (to go on foot)
  • пої́хати (to travel / to move using a vehicle)
  • полетíти (to fly)

to conjugate these verbs, you one have to take the verb from the table above and add по-.

In all the examples we have studied we talk about “to go to the cinema” o “to fly to Madrid”. That is, we talked about going to a certain destination.

But we could also talk about movements as in “I’m walking around in the park” or “I’m running on the beach”. That is, we would talk about moving without any particular destination. In these cases we use multidirectional verbs:

multidirectional Я ходжу́ по па́рку I’m walking in the park
Я бíгаю на стадіо́ні I’m running in the stadium
unidirectional Я йду в парк I’m going to the park
Я біжу́ на стадіо́н I’m running to the stadium
Ukrainian test

Test

Check if you know this lesson:

1. Which of these two verbs means “to go” and is imperfective?
ходи́ти
йти
both

2. Which kind of verb do we use to say “I am going to school”?
multidirectional
unidirectional
both

3. Which kind of verb do we use to say “I go to school every day”?
multidirectional
unidirectional
both

4. Translate “Ми хо́димо в кіно́”
I’m going to the cinema.
We went to the cinema.
We usually go to the cinema.

5. Translate “I’m running home.”
Я бíгаю додо́му
Я біжу́ додо́му
Я бíгав додо́му



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